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Table 1 Advantages of friction-stir welding (FSW) over traditional processes

From: Investigation of weld defects in friction-stir welding and fusion welding of aluminium alloys

Characteristics Advantages
Weldability Some aluminium alloys that are either not weldable or difficult to weld due to problems of brittle phase formation and cracking are now weldable by friction stir welding as it is a solid-state process.
Distortion Longitudinal and transverse distortion is minimised in the FSW process due to the lower peak temperature in FSW compared to arc welding processes.
Fatigue resistance FSW welds exhibit improved fatigue resistance during cyclic loading conditions due to the lower peak temperature and lower residual stress.
Filler material requirements For some aluminium materials, no suitable filler material matching the strength of the base material is available for arc welding processes. FSW does not require filler material to join the metals.
Process variables The comparatively few process parameters involved and easy controllability make FSW a relatively stable process.