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Table 4 Chart for enhancing power output and profitability in industrial GTs

From: Enhancing power output and profitability through energy-efficiency techniques and advanced materials in today’s industrial gas turbines

Approach to improve thermal efficiency Design features required in GT system Additional benefit Reference in text/figure/table Citation
Intercooling Pass the working fluid through a 1st stage compressor, then a cooler, followed by a 2nd stage compressor An increase in the maximum feasible pressure ratio ‘Intercooling’ section Carapellucci 2009
Regeneration Pass the still-warm post-turbine fluid through a heat exchanger to pre-heat the fluid just entering the combustion chamber Offsets fuel consumption ‘Regeneration’ section Bassily 2008
Less power loss as waste heat
Combined cycle (CC) Combine Brayton engine with Rankine engine to obtain gas-steam CC Thermal efficiency as high as 60% ‘Combined cycle’ section Gorji-Bandpy et al. 2010; Canière et al. 2006; Najjar 2001
Cogeneration Couple natural gas turbine with electrical generator Steam obtained may be used for hot-water production or space heating ‘Cogeneration’ section, Figure 1 Najjar et al. 2004; Brooks 2000; Agarwal et al. 2011; Pilavachi 2000
Direct exhaust heat from the GT to WHRB
Direct steam from WHRB to a steam turbine generator
IAC and STIG cycles Cool the air before compression Higher power output in peak summer demands ‘Inlet air cooling and STIG cycles’ section Figures 3 and 4 Brooks 2000; Al-Ansary 2007
Use the new economic system: ejector refrigeration system to cool turbine inlet air Low power consumption by using ejector refrigeration system
Add steam to the combustion chamber  
Higher TIT Use advanced/SC superalloy in turbine components Higher revenue/profitability ‘Higher turbine inlet temperature,’ ‘Enhancing profitability in power generation,’ and ‘Improving GT efficiency through advanced superalloys’ sections; Figures 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12; Equations 3 and 4 Nye Thermodynamics Corporation (NTC) 2011; Zeren 1982; Schulz et al. 2008; Braue et al. 2007; Huda et al. 2011; Jianting 2011; Cao and Loria 2005; Sajjadi and Nategh 2001; Sajjadi et al. 2002; Sajjadi et al. 2006; Zickler et al. 2009; Perepezko 2009; Todd 1989; Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) 2011; Diologent and Caron 2004; Sajjadi and Zebarjad 2006; Kennedy 2005; Kitazawa et al. 2010; Pint et al. 1998; Wright and Gibbons 2007; Choi et al. 2010; Walston 2004; Troczynski et al. 1996; DeMasi-Marcinand and Gupta 1994; Movchan 1996; Schulz et al. 1997; Padture et al. 2002; Boccaccini and Zhitomirsky 2002; Boccaccini et al. 2006; Besra and Liu 2007; Corni et al. 2008; Dusoulier et al. 2011; Doungdaw et al. 2005; Mohanty et al. 2008; Put et al. 2003
Use TBC using EPD/EBPVD MHI, J-series engine operating at TIT = 1,600°C has achieved efficiency exceeding 60%