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Table 4 Chart for enhancing power output and profitability in industrial GTs

From: Enhancing power output and profitability through energy-efficiency techniques and advanced materials in today’s industrial gas turbines

Approach to improve thermal efficiency

Design features required in GT system

Additional benefit

Reference in text/figure/table



Pass the working fluid through a 1st stage compressor, then a cooler, followed by a 2nd stage compressor

An increase in the maximum feasible pressure ratio

‘Intercooling’ section

Carapellucci 2009


Pass the still-warm post-turbine fluid through a heat exchanger to pre-heat the fluid just entering the combustion chamber

Offsets fuel consumption

‘Regeneration’ section

Bassily 2008

Less power loss as waste heat

Combined cycle (CC)

Combine Brayton engine with Rankine engine to obtain gas-steam CC

Thermal efficiency as high as 60%

‘Combined cycle’ section

Gorji-Bandpy et al. 2010; Canière et al. 2006; Najjar 2001


Couple natural gas turbine with electrical generator

Steam obtained may be used for hot-water production or space heating

‘Cogeneration’ section, Figure 1

Najjar et al. 2004; Brooks 2000; Agarwal et al. 2011; Pilavachi 2000

Direct exhaust heat from the GT to WHRB

Direct steam from WHRB to a steam turbine generator

IAC and STIG cycles

Cool the air before compression

Higher power output in peak summer demands

‘Inlet air cooling and STIG cycles’ section Figures 3 and 4

Brooks 2000; Al-Ansary 2007

Use the new economic system: ejector refrigeration system to cool turbine inlet air

Low power consumption by using ejector refrigeration system

Add steam to the combustion chamber


Higher TIT

Use advanced/SC superalloy in turbine components

Higher revenue/profitability

‘Higher turbine inlet temperature,’ ‘Enhancing profitability in power generation,’ and ‘Improving GT efficiency through advanced superalloys’ sections; Figures 5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12; Equations 3 and 4

Nye Thermodynamics Corporation (NTC) 2011; Zeren 1982; Schulz et al. 2008; Braue et al. 2007; Huda et al. 2011; Jianting 2011; Cao and Loria 2005; Sajjadi and Nategh 2001; Sajjadi et al. 2002; Sajjadi et al. 2006; Zickler et al. 2009; Perepezko 2009; Todd 1989; Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO) 2011; Diologent and Caron 2004; Sajjadi and Zebarjad 2006; Kennedy 2005; Kitazawa et al. 2010; Pint et al. 1998; Wright and Gibbons 2007; Choi et al. 2010; Walston 2004; Troczynski et al. 1996; DeMasi-Marcinand and Gupta 1994; Movchan 1996; Schulz et al. 1997; Padture et al. 2002; Boccaccini and Zhitomirsky 2002; Boccaccini et al. 2006; Besra and Liu 2007; Corni et al. 2008; Dusoulier et al. 2011; Doungdaw et al. 2005; Mohanty et al. 2008; Put et al. 2003


MHI, J-series engine operating at TIT = 1,600°C has achieved efficiency exceeding 60%